Online questionnaires were distributed through the websites from February 9 to March 10, , allowing a period of 30 days for data collection. The Survey Monkey questionnaire utilized in this study comprised 21 questions. Among these questions, three had eight sub-questions each for obtaining overall qualifications and attitude of the study participants.
The remaining 18 questions had multiple options which the participants can answer based on a 5-point Likert scale. All the participants who participated in the survey were informed that their involvement was voluntary. They were assured that their identity would be kept confidential and that the survey would be completely anonymous, thus did not require any personally identifying information. A total of respondents submitted their responses to the study questionnaire.
Among these were from the eight carefully selected websites and were from social media sites. A demographic evaluation revealed that three of four respondents were aged from 18 to 35 years. The demographic findings showed that It was intriguing to note that Uniformity over the time span in the usage of dating apps was revealed with the usage frequency once per week to every day.
Regarding utilization of dating apps for meeting with other dating app users, results revealed that the majority of users Every three of four respondents translating to This study also explored the nature of messaging to identify which illicit drug was used the most frequently among MSMs. The study showed that methamphetamine abuse is rampant among the MSM community. The data revealed that majority of the messages were relevant to methamphetamine — a transparent color shaped drug similar to ice cubes.
The nature of the persuasive messages for this drug abuse were coded with words such as high, cold, ice cubes, dew, ice, pull, and spray. Nearly one-third of these users Presently, more than half of the respondents who have been engaged in substance use are still using substances regularly, whereas only Approximately one of four Besides, approximately four of five respondents who have been engaged in substance use or trials Consequently, this information reflects that dating apps are one of the highly popular distribution channels among substance users for spreading substance use.
Regarding behaviors of using substances during sexual intercourses, merely one of three substance users engage in sexual intercourses without using substances simultaneously Furthermore, approximately one of three respondents who use substances during their sexual intercourse did not use condoms regularly However, considering the statistics of HIV examinations within the sample, as much as three of four substance users Substance abuse is likely to create happiness with three attitude parameters: As evidenced in Table 1 , persuasion is a major factor involved in supporting the decision by the MSMs to get involved in illicit drug usage.
In the next step, correlations between attitudes toward substance use trials, along with attitudes toward persuasions to engage in substance use, with the behaviors of engaging in persuasion-induced substance use were examined. The findings reveal that attitudes toward substance use trials along with attitudes toward persuasions to engage in substance use are positively correlated with the behaviors of engaging in persuasion-induced substance use Table 2. This suggests that people who either have positive attitudes toward substance trials or have positive attitudes toward persuasions to engage in substance use have the likelihood to engage behaviors of persuasion-induced substance use.
Relationship between attitudes toward substance trials, along with attitudes toward persuasions to engage in substance use, with behaviors of engaging in persuasion-induced substance use. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to further evaluate the correlation coefficients attitudes toward substance use trials and attitudes with persuasions to engage in substance abuse by specifying the persuasion-induced behaviors of engaging in substance use as the dependent variable. Through these analyses, it was revealed that decisions to engage in persuasion-induced substance abuse trials and satisfaction when receiving substance abuse trial invitations are two most significant variables in predicting the behaviors of substance abuse, respectively.
Therefore, this scenario indicates that when dating app users receive substance abuse trial invitations, they feel satisfied with these persuasive messages and more likely to get engaged in substance use. The findings from the Tables 3 can be described using the following multiple regression formulae expressed in the form of two models to predict the effectiveness of persuasive messages in bringing people toward substance use:. Based on the information collected through questionnaires, the correlations between satisfaction toward substance use, along with the desire to use substances in the future, as well as the frequency of substance use were also examined Table 4.
The analyses revealed that satisfaction toward substance use and the desire to continue in the future are positively correlated with the frequency of substance use. This indicates that people who are subjected to substance use either have high satisfaction toward substance use or have high desire, which would ultimately result in higher frequency of substance use. The relationship between satisfaction toward substance abuse, along with the desire to use substances in the future, and frequency of substance abuse. Data collected relevant to various demographic factors revealed that age and monthly income are significantly correlated with the behavioral aspect of persuasion-induced substance use followed by education and gender among Thai MSMs Table 5.
These findings will help policy makers in Thailand to identify people who need relatively better attention in overcoming drug use. Correlation of demographic characteristics of respondents with behaviors of engaging in persuasion-induced substance abuse.
Dating apps have greatly enhanced the connecting of men who are interested in meeting other men for sex without enough background about each other. This study also evaluated through the questionnaire how much MSMs connected through dating apps pay attention to safer sex, particularly using condoms during sexual intercourse. Data from this study revealed a negative correlation between the partners meeting through dating apps and condom usage Table 6.
Relationship between safe sex and awareness about sexually transmitted diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and MSM behaviors. Substance use relationship with high-risk sex has been extensively described in numerous studies.
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There is a variety of dating apps available in the market. The reason for preference toward these two apps compared with others is a user friendly interface and built in preferences that allow users to share messages and pictures only to the intended audience. A blog share showing weighted average ratings based on customer satisfaction data is worth mentioning and both the apps used by the Thai MSM community stand on top of the list suggesting ill intended use of these apps all across the globe, 12 a notion that still needs to be explored.
This risky sexual behavior associated with substance use is one of the major causes for rapidly spreading acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS in the region.
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Utilization of dating apps all across the world including Thailand is a reality; however, exploitation of these tools in enticing other fellow members in substance use is a major problem to be tackled. This study evaluated the holistic scenario of substance use invitation and associated response, a major behavioral aspect.leahoripecjeo.tk
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There are a number of potential variables impacting the behavior of MSM toward substance use. This study performed a stepwise multiple regression to deduce the plausible correlation of substance abuse among MSMs. Inferential statistic data from this study strongly suggest that the use of dating apps, especially among MSMs, increase the risk that dating app users will engage in substance trials due to the high possibility that they will receive persuasions from other dating app users to engage in substance trials Another interesting aspect of this study is that the data are relevant to precautionary measures during sexual intercourse.
Concurrently, substance use during sexual intercourses tends to be related to risky behaviors reducing the likelihood of using condoms.
Besides STIs, it is important to mention the short- and long-term issues associated with substance use on human health. Short-term issues include increased heart rate, dizziness, tremors, and mode changes, whereas long-term impact includes mental and physical effects. This study provides critical information that will assist policy makers in developing public health care strategies in Thailand.
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However, the authors are also aware of the inherent limitations associated with online studies that need to be addressed in future. There are several potential avenues for future studies or ongoing work by our group and colleagues. All the data were collected through online interaction, thus limiting physical interactions that always increase the validity of findings and personal thoughts about any study. Furthermore, people are sometimes reluctant to voluntarily provide information, and it is believed that the findings of this study describe a cluster of sampling units limiting diversity aspects.
The study proposes future scientific work involving personal interviews and diversifying the targeted websites and social media channels. However, it was extremely encouraging, receiving such a high number of responses within a limited time frame utilized in this study. Another limitation of this study is relevant to safer sex during intercourse. This study incorporated only condom usage question among MSMs having sexual intercourse under the influence of substance use.
It is possible that some of them might be using microbicides and PreExposure Prophylaxis or other formulation that is intended to protect them from STIs during sexual intercourse. A possible future extension of this study is to explore this subject in detail. Furthermore, mobile phone applications for dating is not the only communication channel that is being used by MSMs to look for sexual dating partners. There might be other specific communication channels for people who use substances during their sexual intercourses or there might be other dating applications that are not included in the questionnaire.
This study provides important information relevant to the sexual behaviors of MSMs in Thailand and the associated clandestine activity of motivating others for substance use, by using modern dating apps basically intended to connect people with each other.
Furthermore, the attitudes toward substance trials have positive associations with attitudes toward substance trial invitations, and both the attitudes have positive relationships with the behaviors of engaging in persuasion-induced substance trials. Concurrently, decisions to engage in persuasion-induced substance trials and satisfaction of substance trial invitations are the two main variables that affect the prediction of behaviors of substance trials. Moreover, substance use also affects the risk of STIs, because substance use during sexual intercourse decreased the use of condoms.
A possible direction for further research studies is to conduct depth analytical studies on the specific issue by using both qualitative and quantitative research to determine the relationships between the attitudes and behaviors of substance use, sexual intercourses, and prevention measures.
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The ethics committee of the School of Communication Arts and Management Innovation at the National Institute of Development Administration, Thailand, gave the ethical approval for this study. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The researchers provided respondents with a description of the study, including the possible risks to the respondent, a privacy statement, and an indication of the presence of questions about sexual activities and substance use. No identifiable private information was stored.
The respondents were allowed to withdraw from the survey, and their responses were discarded. After completing the questionnaires, the respondents would see a web page showing safe sex guidelines and telephone numbers for substance reduction. The authors would like to thank Watcharakorn Choochat for creating and publishing the questionnaires online, and Chanapa Itdhiamornkulchai for translating the Thai manuscript into English, and for her writing assistance and sequence alignment.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Psychol Res Behav Manag. Published online Jan Smith Boonchutima and Watsayut Kongchan. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https: By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Abstract Background Dating apps play a major role in connecting men who are interested in meeting other men for sex.
Methods This study evaluated the overall usage of dating apps among Thai men who have sex with men MSMs , with an emphasis on abusing these apps to convey messages encouraging substance use. Conclusion Dating apps significantly increased motivational substance use through messaging from their counterparts. Background Substance use or illicit drugs usage is a major problem in Thailand and other parts of the world.
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A questionnaire was designed which included a number of important questions: Methods The research methodology used in this study involves a survey of Thai MSMs using dating apps. Results A total of respondents submitted their responses to the study questionnaire. I do not see any bad consequences of substance trials. Table 1 Relationship between attitudes toward substance abuse trials and harm perception. Correlation Feel satisfied upon trial invitations Desire to engage in persuasion-induced substance use Decisions to engage in persuasion-induced substance trials I do not see any bad consequences of substance abuse 0.
Open in a separate window. Table 2 Relationship between attitudes toward substance trials, along with attitudes toward persuasions to engage in substance use, with behaviors of engaging in persuasion-induced substance use.